UPDATED with DG Competition's response to Rewheel's concerns. How low should the wholesale data roaming cap be in 2017 to avoid the distortion of competition in North-Eastern domestic mobile markets where retail gigabyte prices are competitive?
Efficient use of radio spectrum resources: Elisa Finland is the world's most efficient operator in turning MHz-s into gigabytes. Elisa in Finland pumps 26 times as much gigabyte per MHz per population as Vodafone in Germany. Unlimited mobile data model spreading in Europe, increasing North-South tentions in the EU mobile data roam like at home debate.
The Commission proposed wholesale data roaming cap of €8.5/GB appears to be carefully calibrated to protect the very high domestic retail prices charged by operators in tight oligopoly markets (e.g. Germany, Spain) while penalizing operators with competitive much lower domestic retail prices (e.g. Finland, Denmark, Poland)